Appropriating the Weather

Vilhelm Bjerknes and the Construction of a Modern Meteorology
Author: Robert Marc Friedman
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501731106
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 1183
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In this book, Robert Marc Friedman analyzes the revolution in the theory and practice of meteorology during the first quarter of the twentieth century, initiated by Vilhelm Bjerknes (1862–1951) and his collaborators. In contrast to the approach that had dominated meteorology since the late nineteenth century, their weather models and forecasting techniques marked a decisive turn to a dynamical–physical understanding of the atmosphere. Using a wide range of sources, both published and unpublished, Friedman traces the emergence of the new, so-called Bergen methodology and the process by which it transformed first Norwegian and then worldwide weather forecasting. The establishment of the new meteorology, he argues, was the result of a complaex interaction of scientific, social, and technological factors, and he gives special emphasis to the way in which Bjerknes adapted his mechanical physics of the atmosphere to benefit commercial purposes. By providing more reliable forecasts for farmers, fishermen, and especially for aviators, Bjerknes was able to nurture a school of disciples that could evert a profound influence on the international meteorological community, thereby increasing his own authority and that of the discipline he sought to shape. Friedman does an unusually subtle job of integrating the often opposing methods of the history and the sociology of science. He explains in detail how Bjerknes, a theoretical physicist, and his collaborators developed a new model of cyclone evolution and the first clear physical explanation of how weather happens. At the same time, Friedman demonstrates how conceptual change was interconnected with the Bergen school's striving to obtain political support at home and to dominate professional meteorology abroad. Appropriating the Weather is an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the processes in which scientific, institutional, and social factors interact to form scientific disciplines. It deserves wide readership among historians and sociologists of science and science policy makers, as well as meteorologists and other geophysical scientists.

Atmospheric Science at NASA

A History
Author: Erik M. Conway
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9781421401638
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 362
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Atmospheric Science at NASA critically examines this politically controversial science, dissecting the often convoluted roles, motives, and relationships of the various institutional actors involved—among them NASA, congressional appropriation committees, government weather and climate bureaus, and the military.

Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers


Author: Virginia Trimble,Thomas R. Williams,Katherine Bracher,Richard Jarrell,Jordan D. Marché,F. Jamil Ragep
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387304002
Category: Science
Page: 1348
View: 8963
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The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. The two volumes include approximately 1550 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of about 400 authors edited by an editorial board of 9 historians and astronomers, and provides additional details on the nature of an entry and some summary statistics on the content of entries. This new reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the superluminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo’s acolyte, Mario Guiducci. A comprehensive contributor index helps researchers to identify the authors of important scientific topics and treatises.

Storm Watchers

The Turbulent History of Weather Prediction from Franklin's Kite to El Niño
Author: John D. Cox
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471444862
Category: Science
Page: 252
View: 4009
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A lively, inspiring account of the pioneers who sought toaccurately predict the weather Benjamin Franklin . . . James P. Espy . . . Cleveland Abbe . . .Carl-Gustaf Rossby . . . Jule G. Charney . . . just a few of theremarkable individuals who struggled against formidable odds tounderstand the atmosphere and predict the weather. Where they sawpatterns and processes, others saw randomness and tumult-and yetthey strove to make their voices heard, often saving lives in theprocess. Storm Watchers takes you on a fascinating journey through time thatcaptures the evolution of weather forecasting. From the age whenmeteorology was considered one step removed from sorcery to themodern-day wizardry of supercomputers, John Cox introduces you tothe pioneering scientists whose work fulfilled an ancient dream andmade it possible to foretell the future. He tells the little-knownstories of these weathermen, such as Ptolemy's weather predictionsbased on astrology, John Finley's breakthrough research inidentifying tornadoes, and Tor Bergeron's new techniques of weatherforecasting, which contributed to its final worldwideacceptance. Filled with extraordinary tales of bravery and sacrifice, StormWatchers will make you think twice the next time you turn on thelocal news to catch the weather report.

Fortune Tellers

The Story of America's First Economic Forecasters
Author: Walter Friedman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849861
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 288
View: 901
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The period leading up to the Great Depression witnessed the rise of the economic forecasters, pioneers who sought to use the tools of science to predict the future, with the aim of profiting from their forecasts. This book chronicles the lives and careers of the men who defined this first wave of economic fortune tellers, men such as Roger Babson, Irving Fisher, John Moody, C. J. Bullock, and Warren Persons. They competed to sell their distinctive methods of prediction to investors and businesses, and thrived in the boom years that followed World War I. Yet, almost to a man, they failed to predict the devastating crash of 1929. Walter Friedman paints vivid portraits of entrepreneurs who shared a belief that the rational world of numbers and reason could tame--or at least foresee--the irrational gyrations of the market. Despite their failures, this first generation of economic forecasters helped to make the prediction of economic trends a central economic activity, and shed light on the mechanics of financial markets by providing a range of statistics and information about individual firms. They also raised questions that are still relevant today. What is science and what is merely guesswork in forecasting? What motivates people to buy forecasts? Does the act of forecasting set in motion unforeseen events that can counteract the forecast made? Masterful and compelling, Fortune Tellers highlights the risk and uncertainty that are inherent to capitalism itself.

The European Antarctic

Science and Strategy in Scandinavia and the British Empire
Author: P. Roberts
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230337902
Category: History
Page: 266
View: 5865
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This is the first transnational study of British, Norwegian, and Swedish engagement with the Antarctic. Rather than charting how Europeans unveiled the Antarctic, it uses the history of Antarctic activity as a window into the political and cultural worlds of twentieth-century Britain and Scandinavia.

Eye of the Storm

Inside the World's Deadliest Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Blizzards
Author: Jeffrey O. Rosenfeld
Publisher: Plenum Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Nature
Page: 308
View: 9342
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Explores the history of storm science, discusses the forces behind tornadoes, hurricanes, and other deadly storms, and introduces the scientists who have devoted their careers to understanding the weather

Great Events from History II.: 1888-1910


Author: Frank Northen Magill
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780893566388
Category: Science
Page: 2386
View: 4896
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Science and Its Times

Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery
Author: Neil Schlager,Josh Lauer
Publisher: Gale / Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9780787639389
Category: Science
Page: 672
View: 5018
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"This series discusses how the major fields of science developed during specific time periods. Each volume focuses on a range of years and includes developments in exploration, life sciences, mathematics, physical sciences, and technology. When the series is completed, the seven volumes will cover 2000 B.C. to the present."--"Outstanding Reference Sources," American Libraries, May 2001.

Earth Sciences History

Journal of the History of the Earth Sciences Society
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Earth sciences
Page: N.A
View: 5814
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