The Origins of Fairness

How Evolution Explains Our Moral Nature
Author: Nicolas Baumard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190613912
Category: Philosophy
Page: 272
View: 5390
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In order to describe the logic of morality, "contractualist" philosophers have studied how individuals behave when they choose to follow their moral intuitions. These individuals, contractualists note, often act as if they have bargained and thus reached an agreement with others about how to distribute the benefits and burdens of mutual cooperation. Using this observation, such philosophers argue that the purpose of morality is to maximize the benefits of human interaction. The resulting "contract" analogy is both insightful and puzzling. On one hand, it captures the pattern of moral intuitions, thus answering questions about human cooperation: why do humans cooperate? Why should the distribution of benefits be proportionate to each person's contribution? Why should the punishment be proportionate to the crime? Why should the rights be proportionate to the duties? On the other hand, the analogy provides a mere as-if explanation for human cooperation, saying that cooperation is "as if" people have passed a contract-but since they didn't, why should it be so? To evolutionary thinkers, the puzzle of the missing contract is immediately reminiscent of the puzzle of the missing "designer" of life-forms, a puzzle that Darwin's theory of natural selection essentially resolved. Evolutionary and contractualist theory originally intersected at the work of philosophers John Rawls and David Gauthier, who argued that moral judgments are based on a sense of fairness that has been naturally selected. In this book, Nicolas Baumard further explores the theory that morality was originally an adaptation to the biological market of cooperation, an arena in which individuals competed to be selected for cooperative interactions. In this environment, Baumard suggests, the best strategy was to treat others with impartiality and to share the costs and benefits of cooperation in a fair way, so that those who offered less than others were left out of cooperation while those who offered more were exploited by their partners. It is with this evolutionary approach that Baumard ultimately accounts for the specific structure of human morality.

The Primate Origins of Human Nature


Author: Carel P. Van Schaik
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119118190
Category: Social Science
Page: 544
View: 6173
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The Primate Origins of Human Nature (Volume 3 in The Foundations of Human Biology series) blends several elements from evolutionary biology as applied to primate behavioral ecology and primate psychology, classical physical anthropology and evolutionary psychology of humans. However, unlike similar books, it strives to define the human species relative to our living and extinct relatives, and thus highlights uniquely derived human features. The book features a truly multi-disciplinary, multi-theory, and comparative species approach to subjects not usually presented in textbooks focused on humans, such as the evolution of culture, life history, parenting, and social organization.

The Origins of Justice

The Evolution of Morality, Human Rights, and Law
Author: John O'Manique
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812237061
Category: Law
Page: 206
View: 8407
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Offers a more benign view than that of Thomas Hobbes and later followers of the origins of the social contract. "A scholarly tour de force that situates the development of justice in relationships, beginning with the foundational human relationships of mother and child."—Riane Eisler, author of The Chalice and the Blade

Choice


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Academic libraries
Page: N.A
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The Review of Reviews


Author: William Thomas Stead
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 5228
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Stead's Review


Author: William Henry Fitchett,Henry Stead,William H. Judkins
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Australian periodicals
Page: N.A
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Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics: Mundas-Phrygians


Author: James Hastings,John Alexander Selbie
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ethics
Page: N.A
View: 6133
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Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics


Author: James Hastings,John Alexander Selbie,Louis Herbert Gray
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ethics
Page: N.A
View: 5313
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Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics: Mundas-Phrygians


Author: John Alexander Selbie,James Hastings
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ethics
Page: 12
View: 6023
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Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics: Mundas-Phyrgians


Author: James Hastings
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Ethics
Page: N.A
View: 9469
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